Kicker: DEBATE In Search of a Goldilocks Zone in Skyrocketing Chicken Prices By Do-Hyuk Kim, Reporter / Su-Young Kim, Cub-reporter email@example.comfirstname.lastname@example.org Do you know how muck chicken is currently? The price of one chicken, including delivery fee, is 20,000 won to 30,000 won. Prices have risen because of covid-19, high oil prices, and the war in Ukraine. Therefore, the price of chicken, which used to be considered food for the common people, is also soaring. In March of this year, the chairman of a chicken company sparked controversy by saying that 30,000 won was reasonable. After 2 months later, they increased the price of the brand’s basic menu by 2,000 won, which caused more resistance. From the consumer’s point of view, the price of 30,000 won is very expensive; however, there is also an opinion that such a price is inevitable for chicken sales. From now on, let’s talk about high chicken’s price together. Is it too expensive, or inevitable? It's Too Expensive Even though the price is getting higher because of various reasons, I cannot agree with chicken’s price. First, chicken was a food which the common people can eat comfortably. Before 10 years ago, the famous franchise chicken company’s chicken price was 13,000 won to 16,000 won. Most people were enthusiastic about the unique and diverse taste of chicken shops, and chicken was considered a popular dish. Unfortunately, they cannot enjoy chicken anymore like before because of the high price. The franchise chicken companies said the reason of chicken’s high price is an increase in labor costs, frying powder, and building rent. However, the operating profit ratio of chicken franchises is increasing. One of the highest franchise chicken company’s profit ratios is 32%. This is like the profit margin of Apple, an electronics company. If they were really forced to raise prices due to material costs and additional costs, would they be able to make this profit margin? I think they are raising prices for corporate profits, citing the popularity of chicken and the excuse of rising prices. Second, a cheap chicken, priced at 6,990 won, appeared against expensive franchise chicken. This chicken is sold at a large supermarket. According to the menu development manager, he claimed that he does not lose money by purchasing ingredients in bulk to make chicken and frying and packaging meat directly at the mart. Consumers are reacting positively to the cheap and delicious chicken. This case may prove sufficiently that franchisees are in a situation where they can consider the price of food. In an age of inflation, consumers are keen on prices. They are not arguing that food prices should be lowered unconditionally. If we were just watching prices rise, other basic foods such as Tteok-bokki and gimbap, would also soar beyond our imagination. I think that the price of a product should be determined by properly harmonizing the positions of consumers and sellers. Therefore, franchisees should listen to consumers and think about better solutions to higher chicken prices. It's Inevitable Because reasonably priced chicken became so hot between people and controversy, it even came up on television news, and this has to be made clear. The interview from the supermarket supervisor saying that selling this alarmingly cheap chicken still makes them some money despite having impressively low-price range should not be understood as ordinary chicken restaurants have constantly priced theirs excessively high for the pursuit of big earnings. Supermarkets can sell these chickens so cheaply because of these three reasons. First is the economy of scale applies to these supermarkets. Big supermarkets attract consumers all the time and tons of people visit these markets on weekends. They could set low profit margin on a single chicken they sell, since they can sell lots of them without having risks of leftover chicken remaining in their facilities becoming cold. Tagging low profit margin on a single product naturally makes the product cheaper, so supermarkets can entice customers to buy just by deploying this simple strategy. Small business owners, on the other hand, can’t match this remarkably easy tactics that big supermarkets easily apply. They have to pay more for purchasing each ingredient required for baking a chicken and should pay a commission to their head office if they are under specific chicken brands. Settling out alone without the help of a major chicken brand could be possible, but it will not be easy and the owner should manage with even bigger risk of failure due to low awareness of the store. Big supermarkets do not need any aggressive promotions to tell customers about their new chicken’s presence. The production cost issue continues. Supermarkets already have cooking utensils and space to bake a chicken that small business owners should buy brand new. Supermarkets sell other groceries, so launching a new chicken menu targeting sensible customers is as easy as just adding a new menu that is already related to the one that already exists in a Michelin-awarded restaurant. This reveals the second problem, which is the delivery service platforms. Big supermarkets are already big enough to request customers to come and fetch their chickens in person, but local chicken restaurants are not. Delivery service platforms extorting money from small businesses was already pointed out as a social problem, but most customers are already tamed by the convenience of delivery service apps made by service providers. Delivery service providers are currently abusing their monopoly status to local food stores, including chicken restaurants. Not only do the head offices of popular chicken brands steal lunch money from those small business owners, but delivery service providers too. They ask to pay store owners commissions in the name of attracting customers and connecting delivery men to the store, which is pretty nominal and falsely charged. In the olden days when such thing like delivery service providers did not exist, customers called directly to the store for their requests. No one complained about this organized, Korea-specific system and chicken restaurant owners were free from these expensive commissions. Happiness was short lived, with the introduction of the smartphone and delivery service providers. These service providers are sitting between chicken restaurants and customers, collecting an unfair toll – which big supermarkets never have to consider. The final reason is that the liberation from failure only applies to these big supermarkets. Even if these cheap chickens become a commercial flop, supermarkets are not afraid of such failure. It may not be happy to lose money, but they still can ignore the possibility of failing, since other products they sell got them covered. To local chicken restaurant owners, it is likely that chicken is the only measure of earning money and bad sales of chicken leads them directly into a complete shutdown of the store. They could not dare to price these chickens so cheaply while enduring losses on every chicken they sell. Big supermarkets can also give up on earning money with this cheap chicken but focus on attracting customers to their stores. Big crowds gather every day in these supermarkets to buy this red-hot chicken, and this huge number of people each have a high possibility of buying another product from the supermarket. If a customer visited the supermarket to buy this chicken and suddenly remembered that coffee is about to run out at his home, that is a success for these supermarkets. Congratulations for big supermarkets even making money with that chicken, but to be honest, they would not care about money lost by producing that cheap chicken even if it failed. They could feel free and be highly interested in developing a new record-breaking in terms of price in differently areas, such as ‘half-priced paper towel.’ Small chicken restaurants in your neighborhood cannot even dream of this whole story. These issues eventually all add up. Problems imposed to local business owners instigate the price of chicken you can get from a chicken restaurant within two kilometers away to be expensive. Twenty thousand won for a chicken is inevitable for small chicken restaurant owners to maintain their stores, not for their wealth. Recent inflation and pricier wheat, chicken and cooking oil is new in terms of this issue, and this also is hurting local chicken restaurants. Consumers are facing a severe recession that they have never experienced since 2010, when the subprime mortgage crisis struck the entire global society. All of the consumers, including us, are in search of cheaper products that can replace their previous purchases. It is a difficult time to live an ordinary life while withstanding this crisis and the epidemic combined. When business owners return to their homes, they transform into consumers. When each of these consumers go to work, they become a merchant in either a tangible item or an intangible form. We are both consumers and providers, so effort to impose pricing that everyone can agree on is required, including chickens. One thing should be clear: the goldilocks zone of the chicken price is where both consumers and chicken restaurant owners can happily make an agreement.
Kiker: DEBATE Why Did They Have To Do It at the Subway? What Attitude Should We Have? By Yun-Seo Jung, Cub-Reporter email@example.com Have you ever encountered people with disabilities while using public transportation such as subways and buses? What do you think about public transportation for the disabled? For example, Cheonan buses run 28 low-floor buses for handicapped and there were 6 routes in 2021. In the same year, Cheonan low-floor buses supply rate was about 6.7% in March. Compared to the supply rate of low-floor buses, which is 56.4% in Seoul and 28% in the country, Cheonan is very low. Even if they use public transportation, passengers who ride together may feel inconvenience due to inadequacy of facilities. A Trigger for the Disabled Subway Protest As previously stated, it is true that it is still difficult for disabled people to access public transportation. Solidarity Against Disability Discrimination have demonstrated on the subway, demanding assurance of disabled rights budget, legislation and amendment of the four laws on disabled rights since December last year. Their specific requirements are government support about operating expenses of lifelong education facilities for the disabled and special transportation for disabled, etc. They demonstrated on the metropolitan subway during rush hour, which is usually crowded. On the Seoul subway, some put wheelchairs on the doors and kept them from closing. Others demonstrated with their limbs and heads on the floor, bowing and crawling inside the subway. Protests delayed trains, affecting students and workers to go to school and work. Citizens who were cheering for their protests also complained as they suffered inconvenience. There were also various opinions among the people about the protest. It was divided into a position in favor and in opposition of the protest. However, as the protests continued, the views that defended them also changed negatively. Why Did They Have to Do It on Subway? As mentioned earlier, access to public transportation for the disabled is very low. Disabled people have to ride wheelchair lifts at stations without elevators or transfer sections. However, it is difficult to operate alone, and dangerous because there are many falls and serious injuries or deaths. There are so many difficulties that disabled face in their daily lives as well as when using public transportation like subways. Despite they demonstrated dozens of times, the surroundings for the disabled are not improving. Thus, they are protesting on public transportation with a lot of people. HANKYOREH hani.co.kr What do you think of this protest? Do you agree or disagree? Protests to gain rights hurt others, and in the process, their boundaries deepened by saying hurtful words to each other. What attitude should disabled and non-disabled have in the world we live in together? What attitude should we have? Please leave your opinions. Sources : https://youtu.be/Go3ii7BDE3Y https://www.ajunews.com/view/20220328113653317
Kicker: DEBATE (NO-KIDS ZONE) NO-KIDS Zone, a Distinction or Discrimination? By Sol-Hyang Park, Editor-in-chief firstname.lastname@example.org No Kids zone literally means to restrict access to infants, children, or customers with them. We can mainly find it in restaurants or cafes. According to the No kids zone map, there are at least 400 no kids zones as of November 2021, and the number is increasing. No kids zone - Is it just a distinction or discrimination? – There are various views on this point. Opinions of Supporters Firstly, let's look at the perspective of supporters. Many stores are declaring a no-kids zone, for the reason that children are usually noisy and cause a lot of accidents, so they want to enjoy the store only among adults. The fundamental problem is that the parents of these children act egocentrically, such as leaving defecated diapers on the table in cafes or neglecting their children crying, running around or making a fuss. Therefore, store owners come to prefer a no-kids zone to avoid and minimize factors that hinder their comfort, since they are obligated to provide a not-annoying, pleasant space for other customers. There is also an opinion that if accidents occur by children, the store owners are likely to hold relatively much responsibility - so store owners block the possibility of accidents at all and had better at least not suffer damage. In addition, setting No-kids zone is not legally regulated. Therefore, it is a matter of business freedom, and they believe it is an appropriate measure for the convenience of customers and the benefit of stores. Opinions of Opponents Then, what about the opposite view? The most representative reason is that it discriminates against specific customers, infringing on basic rights. Public etiquette that should not harm others is what everyone should keep, not just some people specified. However, it is discrimination against children to put an age limit based on the judgment that all children of that age will harm others. Thus, there are growing concerns that No Kids zone will instill the perception that children are not members of our society and the discrimination culture can spread naturally. Opponents believe that even if there are children who make a fuss, most parents will not let them cause trouble and that there are more people who do not than selfish parents. In addition, in terms of learning, they believe that the No Kids zone blocks all the lessons that society can give to children in advance. No one keeps public etiquette from birth, we communicate with society in public places and learn it. In this sense, No Kids zone is a selfish choice to take away opportunities from children to learn from society. Some also say that as the No Kids zones expand, if the society reluctance to children spreads, it will worsen the low birth rate problem of Korea. What would be the real reaction? In a survey on No Kids Zones, 70% of the respondents said, "No Kids Zones can be allowed considering the freedom of owners and consideration for other customers." (1,000 men and women aged 18 or older, 21/11/12-15, Korean Research) Besides, searching various surveys, when looking up various surveys on the Internet, there were many cases where the approval rate was high. However, some people continue to speak out for children's human rights.As such, discussions on "No Kids Zones" will continue. What do you think? Sources : https://www.goeonair.com/news/article.html?no=25350 https://www.donga.com/news/Economy/article/all/20211203/110583177/2 https://www.incheon.go.kr/moo/MOO020101/2010212
Kicker: DEBATE (MENTAL DISEASE) Masked Depression By Eugene Ha, Editor email@example.com Are you depressed these days? I think the number of people suffering from COVID-19 depression is increasing as the number of people staying at home and social distancing increases. Although you usually have depression, there are many cases where you do not feel depressed. A disease that comes without showing, in fact, is called masked depression. Have you heard of it? If you have never heard of it, let me introduce you to the ‘masked depression.’ What is Masked Depression? Masked depression refers to a condition in which a patient's depression is like wearing a mask. He is smiling without showing his gloomy mood, but he has symptoms of depression in his heart. Obviously, he is depressed and does not recognize himself as depressed even though he is in need of treatment. On the contrary, he shows too cheerful behavior rather than being depressed. Thus, it is easy to misunderstand it as "magnosis," not depression. It usually appears in people who are not good at expressing depressing feelings How about the Symptoms? When you have masked depression, symptoms often appear elsewhere in the body, not in the depression of the mind. For example, headaches, sleep disorders, fatigue, loss of appetite, and pain for no reason. People complain that they are sick all over the body and see other departments such as orthopedics. It may be accompanied by "health anxiety" that continues to worry about health even though there are no clear pathological factors.Let's take a look at some of the symptoms. 1. Memory is significantly reduced compared to before. Depression and memory may not have much to do with each other at first glance, but if you look closely, they are closely related. As depression progresses, physical damage is done to the part of the brain responsible for memory. As a result, there are people who experience various cognitive disorders and things that they already remembered become white. However, memory impairment in terms of language where certain words do not come to mind rather than repetitive behavior or memory impairment in certain techniques. 2. It is very difficult to focus on something. Many depressive patients experience poor concentration or thinking skills. 3. Rapid changes in appetite and weight Some people lose weight and some people gain weight. If you have more appetite and gain weight more than before, you may suspect amorphous depression, a subclassification of depression. It is acting lively in front of others, so it is hard to recognize itself because it is not visible on the outside. 4. Sleep longer for no particular reason As interest in daily life itself decreases and motivation decreases, lethargy increases. That's why the body naturally needs to sleep and it takes longer to sleep. On the contrary, insomnia, which is repeated every day, is also said to be one of the symptoms. Symptoms may also vary depending on the patient's age. Adolescents are annoyed and rebellious, and middle-aged and elderly people are likely to show anger, emptiness, and suspicion. In the case of older people, symptoms such as insomnia, attention span, and memory loss are frequent. It can also be seen as 'falsatile dementia' with rapid memory degradation. Fake dementia is 'fake' dementia, so it improves together when depression improves together. Therefore, it is necessary to suspect depression if you do not feel depressed, and if the test results continue to show advanced symptoms even though there are no particular physical problems. How can we find out if we have mask depression? In TestKorea, you can receive TEST KOREA'S On-line Computer Scoring Masked Depression Inventory (TMDI). It is available to all age groups from 18 years of age and older, and the degree of change in depression can be checked if carried out regularly. A total of 21 questions will take 5 to 10 minutes. This objective examination would be more appropriate for self-diagnosis. How can we cure it? 1. People with depression are also afraid of how others will feel about them and how they will react to it, and they should relieve their stress and take a psychological sense of stability. 2. Let's have a regular lifestyle. 3. Let's eat food that helps ease tension. - Lactium, which stabilizes negative emotions such as fear and anxiety, is an ingredient found in milk and milk powder that is effective in relieving stress-induced irritating reactions. Let's take it for mental and physical stability. 4. Let's eat a variety of nutrients in balance. In the Covid-19 era, which still continues in the second semester, we must look at not only health but also our minds. If we leave the disease unattended because we have depression in our daily lives even though we have stress from employment and academic problems, it will lead to other mental illnesses later on and we can easily collapse into depression. Let's work together to make our minds healthy from now on!
Kicker: DEBATE (EXHIBITION) The Benefits and Drawbacks of Online Exhibitions in the Pandemic Era by Seo-Won Hong, Cub-Reporter firstname.lastname@example.org The pandemic led to “Untact Culture.” Nowadays, many exhibitions and concerts have decided to be held online. Currently, online exhibitions are still held at the National Museum of Korea and the National Museum of Modern and Contemporary Art. Sangmyung University also held exhibitions online. In December last year, the Department of Photography and Digital Contents held the graduation exhibition offline and also held it online in line with the pandemic era. The Sangmyung University Museum is currently holding online exhibitions. I will find out the benefits and shortcomings of online exhibitions through this article. <Online Exhibition View of “The Modern and Contemporary Korean Writing” at MMCA> The benefits of online exhibitions One of the most significant benefits of online exhibitions is physical boundaries do not restrict people. Location and time are no longer a problem. The fact that online exhibitions do not constrain people makes them economical. Online exhibitions can help visitors save a lot of money they usually would spend on transportation costs. Online exhibitions are also beneficial to exhibitors as they do not need to spend money to rent exhibition halls and plan a schedule. There are also fewer distractions from other visitors. “Duo”, a private marriage agency, conducted a survey of 300 Korean singles from May 21st to May 24th this year. The result showed that another advantage of online exhibition are “people can watch exhibitions without worrying about Covid-19” and “people don’t have to compete to get tickets.” According to data by the International Council of Museums (ICOM), almost all museums around the world were closed because of the COVID-19 pandemic and during the lockdown, many museums enhanced their digital activities. Although almost half of the respondents who responded to the ICOM survey replied that their museum already had a presence on social media or shared its collections online before the lockdowns, the digital communication activities analysed by the survey increased in at least 15% of the museums. The Museum of Modern and Contemporary Art (MMCA) pre-released “The Modern and Contemporary Korean Calligraphy” online since its opening. In a Seoul Culture Today interview, MMCA Director Youn Bum-mo said that MMCA increases access to contents of culture and art online. According to an interview on MMCA, he mentioned “Although museum visits are restricted due to the coronavirus pandemic, I hope that the online tour of this calligraphy exhibition will provide some peace and a sense of hope.” The drawbacks of online exhibitions The drawbacks of online exhibitions come from the limitation of technology. People might have trouble connecting to online exhibitions. In the case of a live streaming exhibition, it can be unstable. Furthermore, online exhibitions cannot embody artwork perfectly. People can see the exhibition only through a screen online. The Architectural Digest article, “11 Digital Art and Design Exhibitions to Get Lost in from Home”, mentioned that the dramatic effects of brushstrokes over canvas are a challenge to convey for the screen. The subtlety of colors, the texture and scale are challenging to capture virtually. The “Duo” survey, as mentioned earlier, showed that Korean singles mentioned “low quality and less closer to reality than offline” as drawbacks of online exhibitions. Many museums use VR technology for more vivid exhibitions, but it is not commercialized widely yet. In addition, there are other barriers such as a decrease in image quality when enlarging a portion of the screen. Online exhibitions have limitations on the ways of communication. People can communicate mostly through chat boxes or online bulletin boards. Those cannot embody immediate reactions occurring in real time at that moment. Even though participating in live chat, people are not in the same actual space so they could lose a sense of immersion and concentration easily. People also can quit the online website in the middle of an exhibition. There are various positions about online exhibitions. Online exhibitions have benefits and drawbacks. Especially nowadays, online exhibitions are held frequently. Some may feel sad that they cannot visit offline exhibitions and just watch them online. Online exhibitions have shortcomings, but they will give enjoyment to people who are tired of Covid-19. Sources: http://www.mmca.go.kr/pr/blogDetail.do?bId=202003310000364&bCd=03&cdId=1360&bGb=02 https://www.duo.co.kr/html/duostory/media_news_view.asp?idx=6259&page=3 http://www.mmca.go.kr/pr/pressDetail.do?menuId=6020000000&bdCId=202003310007157&searchBmCid=200903020000010 http://www.sctoday.co.kr/news/articleView.html?idxno=32253 http://www.icomkorea.org/board/bbs/board.php?bo_table=news&wr_id=184 https://www.architecturaldigest.com/story/digital-art-and-design-exhibitions-get-lost-in-from-home
Kicker: DEBATE (MILITARY) Do you Agree for Extra Points for Discharged Soldiers? Natural Right or Reverse Discrimination? By Dong- wook Kim, Editor email@example.com Discussions on the pros and cons of whether extra points for the discharged soldiers should be given in South Korea have continued since 2001. Of course, the policy has been abolished, but the issue is floating on the surface because of two hundred thousand people agreeing on a petition about both men and women serving the military service. Is giving out extra points policy for the discharged soldiers a fair right that they can take? Or since there are beneficiaries, is it a reverse discrimination for the members of society? Most of the Soldiers are Discharged with Nothing Most of the soldiers in Korea do not volunteer to go to the military. Who would want to lose their freedom? However, as an armistice country it is one of the duties for men to serve in the military for 18 months. Thus, it is a nation’s obligation to benefit the discharged soldiers. The average age of the soldiers is in their 20s which is the age that their peers are preparing to advance to the society to do economic activities. Extra points are the least thing that the country can reward to the soldiers who lost their youths. In addition, the extra points policy can encourage the ones who are serving in the military and prevent soldiers from avoiding entering the service. The fundamental reason that people avoid military duty is that they are not getting any rewards from it. When extra points for the soldiers are carried out, youth will agree to go to the military and it can promote morale to the ones who are serving. Soldiers Waiting in a line to finish their duties Some of the opinion say that we can provide other rewards to these discharged soldiers. However, the financial problem can occur if the soldiers get paid. Since the populism of the welfare going on in the country, an astronomical amount of debt exists. Thus, the policy without supporting economically can be a wise choice. What about People Who Cannot Go to the Military? Extra point for the discharged soldiers is unconstitutional. The court has already made a decision that this policy brings reverse discrimination to women and the ones who do not have to serve in the military. Therefore, it is a consumptive controversy to make it as a law again. As was said before, the policy can bring serious discrimination to the opposite camp. Comparing the percentage of employment of the served and not served applicants there is a 12.9% gap. This shows that extra points policy is not just a small reward that the soldiers can receive but a big disadvantage for the other applicants. Military also help soldiers to enjoy their hobbies and gain academic experiences. From around the 2010s, the military is providing book benefits to soldiers and spare time for them to study their majors. Soldiers have the privilege to select their duties in the military, which most of the university students choose something which has to do with their majors. Falling behind because of entering the military is just an excuse that cannot be recognized. Along with the policy that both men and women should perform military service, the social discussion is getting heightened. There has been a controversy on both genders should have the duty to serve the country as a soldier along with the extra points for discharged soldiers. This opinion insists that all the people in the country should be able to fight back when the war occurs plus, all the volunteered soldiers will be rewarded with the extra point. Both opinions about the extra point should be respected, and most importantly, the policy should not be biased to one group.
Kicker: DEBATE(THINKING) Current Status of University Student’s Book Purchases and Loans by Yoo-Jung Kim, Editor-In-Chief firstname.lastname@example.org The Ministry of Education and the Korea Institute of Education and Academic Information (KERIS) released the "2020 University Library Statistical Survey and Results on Changes in the Last 10 Years." According to the results, 4.0 books were borrowed from the university library by one student, down about half from 8.3 books in 2011. The Korea Institute of Education and Academic Information announced that the biggest factor was the recent change in the form of use by using e-books. The percentage of paper book purchases and loans is decreasing or holding steady. On the other hand, electronic data like e-books usage is rapidly increasing. Electronic data increased by 9.3 percent compared to 2011. Then let's find out what's different between paper books and electronic materials, and what each university student prefers. Comparison of Paper Books and Electronic Materials Paper books have been actively used since the past. Because it is made of paper, it is possible to take notes with a pen or pencil, and even mark what you read in a book with a bookmark. The number of pages displayed in the appendix section allows you to read or find a book directly to the page you want. If you prefer paper books, you can read them with a pen on and often like them because they have less eye fatigue than electronic materials. In some cases, people like the texture of paper books. Some people like traces of time in paper books in the library. Used bookstores selling old books are also popular among people in their 20s these days. Electronic data means viewing documents through an E-book or iPad. For electronic materials, various materials such as general books and papers can be conveniently viewed. If you prefer electronic materials, you often like to read neatly organized books and like formalized handwriting. Electronic materials are not easily dirty compared to paper books and can be copied numerous times. These days, people prefer it because electronic materials can easily do functions such as attaching pictures and capturing, which cannot be done in paper books. Another reason is that tablets such as iPad and Galaxy Tab have recently developed, making it easier to access electronic materials. < Paper Books and Electronic Materials> University Students' Preference for Paper Books and Electronic Materials As mentioned earlier, a recent study found that most college students had a higher preference for electronic materials than paper books. This is a figure that covers most students. Therefore, some college students prefer paper books or e-books. According to the survey, 92% of American college students prefer paper books to e-books. As a result, the U.S. had a high preference for e-books before, but then again, the preference for paper books increased. Like this, we can't conclude because we don't know when our university students' preferences will change. Sangmyung University Students' Thoughts on Paper Books and Electronic Materials Students at Sangmyung University may have used all of their paper books or electronic materials. There will be various opinions, such as using both paper books and electronic materials, using only paper books, and using only electronic materials. In addition, when used, the preference for specific materials may be high and both may feel similar. "What is your favorite type of book as a student at Sangmyung University?" I would like to ask you this question. If you prefer paper books, press the Agree button. On the contrary, if you prefer electronic data, press the Disagree button. If you're neutral, please enjoy the article and don't press the button.
Kicker: DEBATE (SCIENCE) Genetic Scissors, Agree or Disagree? A Tool for Rewriting the Code of Life By Sol-Hyang Park, Reporter email@example.com The 2020 Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded to Emmanuelle Charpentier (Max Planck Unit for the Science of Pathogens, Berlin, Germany) and Jennifer A. Doudna (University of California, Berkeley, USA), for the development of new genetic scissors : CRISPR <The 2020 Nobel Prize Winners in Chemistry> What Is Genetic Scissors? Genetic scissors is literally a genetic editing technique, cutting and pasting DNA. It recognizes a particular genome sequence of human, animal and plant cells and finely cuts DNA in that area. Simply put, it is a “genetic patchwork” that removes the torn clothing (specific genes causing trouble) and coverts it into a new cloth. It is known as a “Magic Wand” in the life sciences industry because using this technology, it can not only treat genetic diseases known as incurable diseases but also can produce plants or animal varieties that are strong against certain germs. The History of Genetic Scissors The genetic scissors have developed in order - ZFNs (Zinc Finger Nucleases,) TALENs (Transcription Activator-Like Effector Nucleases,) and CRISPR (CRISPR/Cas9.) Especially, after the CRISPR was developed in 2012, the field of genetic editing technology has been revolutionizing. The first generation of genetic scissors is ZFNs developed in the mid 1980s. When finger-shaped bumps in proteins containing Zinc (Zinc Finger) recognize certain DNA, the FOKI (restriction enzyme that identify and cut a particular sequence of bases) cut them. The second generation, TALENs introduced in 2011, also operates in a similar way. It’s also a protein that binds to DNA and uses FOKI to cut DNA. The DNA binding part is replaced by the Tale protein, and it can recognize many more DNA bases at once and is more accurate than ZFNs. <Principle of ZFNs & TALENs> However, both are not suitable for actual use because their production and utilization are complicated – need much time and money. Besides, they are not accurate enough, so there is the possibility of off-target cuts (error) that are potentially dangerous. Thus, the first and second generation of genetic scissors are recognized only for research purposes. The Discovery of the CRISPR The CRISPR is the third-generation genetic scissors that complements the problems of the first and second-generation genetic scissors. CRISPR is a unique sequence of bacterial genomes discovered in colonbacillus by a Japanese research team in 1987, which stands for "clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic refits.” Later, in 2007, it was revealed that the sequence was involved in the adaptive immunity of bacteria, but there was no noticeable technology but only theory, so the CRISPR sequence had gradually been forgotten. Meanwhile, in 2012, professors Emmanuelle Charpentier and Jennifer A. Doudnadiscovered one of gene technology’s sharpest tools: the CRISPR genetic scissors. During Emmanuelle Charpentier’s studies, she discovered that a previously unknown molecule, tracrRNA, is part of bacteria’s ancient immune system, CRISPR, that disarms viruses by cleaving DNA. Then she collaborated with Jennifer Doudna, a biochemist expert in RNA. Together, they succeeded in reprogramming the bacteria’s genetic scissors. Originally, the scissors recognize DNA from viruses, but the two scientists proved that they could be controlled to cut any DNA at a predetermined site. The CRISPR consists of guide RNA which finds the target gene to be cut and Cas9 protein which transforms DNA. They are each paired to effectively correct DNA. When the guide RNA finds a specific DNA sequence that needs to be cut, the Cas9 protein binds to the target and cuts the DNA. New strands of DNA combine, and then the DNA edit is finally done. <Principle of the CRISPR> Using this, we can edit the number of genes in only several days at a relatively low cost, and repair multiple genes at the same time. Thus, we can treat genetic diseases such as AIDS or hemophilia. Furthermore, since it is easy to improve the genetic quality of crops, the Crispr is a rising alternative to GMO(geneticallymodifiedorganism.)This technology is now the most widely used genetic scissors – it has had a revolutionary impact on the life sciences. In recognition of their work, Charpentier and Doudna won the 2020 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. Ethical Controversy of the CRISPR However, there are concerns over the ethical issue of ecosystem destruction and customized babies. Using the genetic scissors, it is possible to make babies to our taste. In fact, in 2018, one Chinese scientist, He Jianku, made the world’s first babies using the Crispr - giving birth to twins by removing certain genes to prevent the HIV virus from AIDS. About this case, some experts say that it is invading the realm of God to modify genes that we naturally possess from the birth of human beings. On the other hand, some point out that it is unreasonable to call it “manipulation” or “editing” over only one or two variations of more than 3.2 billion pairs of bases. Besides, this tool has contributed to many important discoveries. We would be able to develop crops that withstand pests and drought. In medicine, new therapies of inherited diseases and cancer are about to come true. These genetic scissors have taken the life sciences into a new epoch. It’s clear that the development of genetic scissors technology is remarkable. In some respects, it will bring the greatest benefits to humankind. On the contrary, making a customized baby can also be considered “unethical.” Moreover, we cannot ignore that scientific side effects difficult to predict can occur, and some may abuse it. However, many experiments using the CRISPR have been conducted, and, furthermore, the next generation of gene scissors, "prime editing", is also under development. With advances in scientific technology, genetic scissors may be soon popularized. Social consensus on this controversy is still continuing. What do you think? Sources : https://www.goeonair.com/news/article.html?no=19089 https://www.nobelprize.org/prizes/chemistry/2020/press-release/ https://terms.naver.com/entry.nhn?docId=2843439&cid=43667&categoryId=43667 https://terms.naver.com/entry.nhn?docId=5781823&cid=62861&categoryId=62861 https://terms.naver.com/entry.nhn?docId=5141671&cid=60266&categoryId=60266 http://www.econovill.com/news/articleView.html?idxno=307745
Kicker: DEBATE (FREEDOM) What Freedom Comes First? Conflict Between the Group and the Individual Yeong-Jin Choi, Reporter/Dong-Wook Kim firstname.lastname@example.orgemail@example.com We encounter a lot of collision between the group and the individual while we are living. In the United States of America, many people are refusing to wear masks because they think that the government forcing them to wear the mask is the violation of their personal freedom. In Korea, there were lots of religious activities accused of violating the codes of the government and causing the pandemic to spread. Is respecting the individuals’ freedom more important than to respect the entire group? Let us discuss about the two perspectives: whether the individual is more important than the group or not. Group Individualism: Bigger Meaning of Individual Freedom Utilitarianism is the system of thought that states that the best action or decision in a particular situation is the one that brings most advantages to the most people. Shortly saying, it means that what satisfies most of the people is most preferable. Then what is the definition of ‘We’? The word ‘We’ is used as the subject of a verb to refer to all people, especially when considered as a group. ‘We’ is used to tell members of a group that includes all individuals. What I am trying to emphasize is that the society and the group cannot be established if not individuals. Some people might feel insulted by the government forcing them to wear a mask in public places. They may think that their freedom not to wear a mask must be prioritized over the society’s safety. However, to gain wellness of the entire society, each one of the individual’s wellness must be guaranteed. Is punishing the criminals a violation of the criminals’ right? Yes, it is. However, it is necessary for the safety of the society. Punishing the criminal may help him or her to be a better person, which are eventually a win-win situation for the criminal and the rest of the members of the society. It is very important to distinguish the difference between neglecting an individual’s right and to limit it for the greater good, in this case, the whole society. The reason why the society limits individuals’ right is because of the ultimate happiness of the society, not because the individuals’ right is unworthy. Individual as a member of a group For instance, stores cannot make their customers eat indoors after 9 p.m. Franchise cafes can allow their customers for take-out only. That decision of the government to prevent the Corona virus spreading has had a critical impact on the stores and cafes’ income. The owners cried out for their own sake, that they are on the verge of closing the store because of the massive debts. Though the government tried to deal with that problem by giving out the ‘Disaster Support Fund’, the problem could not be solved completely. Does that mean that the government should let people do their work no matter of the consequences? What if the pandemic happens again? Sometimes, it is necessary to choose the bigger benefits even though it requires some sacrifices of small parts of the society itself. Individual Freedom Leads to the Meaning of Freedom Itself “Not under the control or in the power of another”. This is the dictionary definition of ‘free’. This also means that a person should be able to act or to do as one wishes to. The word freedom starts from the individual itself. In Western cultures, individuals gather to speak out to the world that their rights are violated by wearing masks in public ‘twenty-four-seven’. Eastern cultures are not the exceptions, and some religious people are complaining about not gathering to have freedom to do religious activities, even if the constitutional law guarantees the freedom to have religions. Even though Eastern and Western requirements are different, their opinions to have freedom are similar in some way. Why are people around the world eager to have freedom? For the case of ‘No Mask’ protest in Western cultures, this sense of rejection starts from the negative recognition of covering faces. Men wearing a mask means that the person is weak and not cool. This thought of Western culture is linked to the freedom to express oneself which Western cultures think of as a basic right. Adding insult to injury, social distancing and quarantine due to the coronavirus play a great role to violate individual rights. ‘No Mask' Protest held in Western Countries According to individualism, society is just an assembly which consists of individuals. According to the theory of social impact, society can be torn apart due to individual wills. The individuals have the right to pursue their priorities. As the multitude of individuals succeed, the society will prosper. With the passage of time, a lot of people are turning to be an individualist. Society exists because individuals gather to make one. According to the theory of freewill described from a philosophical perspective, you are not free even though you are away from the constraints. While constraints exist, we do not see it as an absolute truth. Instead, we think about how we can act ourselves to be as free as possible. Freedom includes both meanings at once so it is not incorrect to say whether individual rights should be protected or the groups. At the same time, the two opinions are incompatible causing one side to violate the other's freedom. In the pandemic situation, while a lot of individual rights are being violated, the world’s health is in danger. Thus, wise choices desperately need to be made to break through the conflict between the individual and the group. Sources:http://m.hani.co.kr/arti/society/schooling/208996.html#cb https://www.bbc.com/news/world-us-canada-53477121
Kicker: LIFESTYLE TRENDS One Marshmallow or a Hundred Marshmallows to Have with Patience? Is the Trend of Small but Certain Happiness Really the Refuge We Created? By Min-gyeong Lee, Editor lee.mkpeach.gmail.com Do you know about the marshmallow experiment? It is a quite famous experiment. It is said that children who earned twice as much because they waited without eating marshmallows immediately became more successful when they grew up. However, it is also widely known that there was a large error in this experiment. The results were interpreted and published without considering the diversity of samples. Those who succeeded later were, in fact, not because of patience, but with a better environment, and the children who did not have the patience were brought up in an environment where they could not trust the rewards that would come later, so they took a marshmallow right away. Korea's trend of “small but certain happiness” also implies this uncomfortable reality. This is a conclusion made by people who have no hope that marshmallows will come twice, ten times, or 100 times with patience and effort. 1. The Concept of “Small but Certain Happiness” and How It Represents Young People “Small but certain happiness” is commonly used to mean “small but certain happiness in everyday life”. This buzzword comes from Murakami Haruki's 1986 essay "Afternoon of the Islets of Langerhans." The writer described the phrase as “the feeling of tearing freshly baked bread with your hands, stacking up neatly folded and packed underwear in a drawer, and wearing a white shirt newly bought with the smell of clean cotton from your head.”. In Korea, the trend of “small but certain happiness” began in a different context from the attractive way of finding happiness in everyday life suggested by Murakami. As for the social definition of this phrase used in Korea, people who accept this trend positively as well as those who criticize it negatively, generally agree that it is an antithesis of social happiness judged from the social point of view pursued by the existing society, such as being promoted, marriage, owning a home, owning a car, etc. As a means of marketing, by actively using this buzzword as a suitable phrase to replace cost-effectiveness or other product benefits with abstract happiness, it has become more visible in advertisements than real young people actively use it. Compared to the way concepts similar to “small but certain happiness” are interpreted and practiced in other foreign countries, the phenomenon has become much more consumption-oriented or even wasting in Korea, as it meets the strong consumerist culture peculiar to Korean society. In other words, it is accepted by young people as a concept of materially compensating one's own suffering through consumption in shorter cycles rather than giving up the present for a large, uncertain happiness in the future. The younger generation with a relatively high average educational background is trying to live while recognizing reality and making compromises based on some reasonable logic. 2. “Big and Certain Happiness” Against “Small but Certain Happiness” On the other hand, a new discussion has recently emerged among the younger generation. “I do not need “small but sure happiness”. I need a certain and sound happiness. What is wrong with that I am poor-looking? I will work hard to collect money.” “Big and certain happiness”: The great capital or life achievements or processes that are earned through hard-working and saving in youth. In a way, this can seem like an obsolete value. The value of “youth because you suffer” makes sense at first glance that you have to struggle in youth to be comfortable with old age; however, it is often used as an excuse for unscrupulous people who try to exploit young people's workforce at no cost, so many young people have an allergic reaction to hearing similar words.. Nonetheless, after discovering the “small but certain happiness” trend and aggressively emphasizing it in the media and marketing, it became a society that promotes overconsumption, and young people who question this phenomenon began to appear one after another. However, as mentioned earlier, because of the values these people pursue, or the voices that are concerned and criticize consumerism embedded in the trend, the economic structure that does not benefit younger generations and benefits only specific people overlap with the so-called “ggondaes”*, people characterized by narrow-minded nagging,. which is criticized by people who enjoy short cycle repetitive consumerist lifestyles. This trend is also based on the social outlook and individualism of the young generation with high average education, and it is not easily disputed because there are already some grounds and conclusions. *ggondae: the Korean term for a narrow-minded old human However, it is true that when people who support “small but certain happiness” consumer lifestyles criticize “big and certain happiness”, their criticism also has limitations of grasping the different argument from theirs based on their approximate impressions rather than from proper examination. The greatest obstacle to discovery is not ignorance - it is the illusion of knowledge. - Daniel J. Boorstin As the prospects of the younger generation are gloomy anyway, a trend of “small but certain happiness” has emerged that they will be rewarded for their efforts every time while enjoying the present. On the other hand, there have been some people who aim for “Big and certain happiness” by saving money and struggling with financial technology. Is the latter really just old value? Or is it a new will to protect themselves in response to consumerism and commercialism? Sources: https://www.sciencetimes.co.kr/news/%EB%A7%88%EC%8B%9C%EB%A9%9C%EB%A1%9C-%EC%84%B1%EA%B3%B5-%EA%B3%B5%EC%8B%9D%EC%9D%80-%EC%98%A4%EB%A5%98/ https://www.cnbc.com/id/100367067